I am a Christian. I believe in the God of the Bible, in God the Father, in His Son Jesus Christ, and in the Holy Spirit. I believe in Genesis 1:1 - "In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. (NIV)" I am a biochemist and a pharmacist by education. As such I have a desire to understand nature. I am writing this blog as my way to express the facts of true science as I understand them, from the perspective of one who believes that all things were created by God, for God and for His purposes.

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Saturday, June 2, 2012

The Minerals of Revelation

We have all, at one time or another, most likely played the game "20 Questions." In that game, the questioner asks the answerer up to 20 questions, trying to guess what the secret subject is. Sometimes the game is played as "Animal, Vegetable or Mineral" where the secret subject is in one of these three categories. We define the subject as being either Animal (if it is alive) Vegetable (if it grows) or Mineral (if it isn't alive and doesn't grow.) Within these three divisions of nature we can classify just about everything in existence.

God has also used all three in His story of history from the Creation in Genesis to the new Creation in Revelation. All play significant roles: The Lamb of God, the Fruit of the Tree of Life and the stone tablets of the Ten Commandments to name a few. He used precious stones on the breastplate of the high priest to symbolize the 12 Tribes of Israel (Exodus 39:8-14 - NIV) and again (essentially the same gems) as ornate coverings for the foundations of the New Jerusalem in the Book of Revelation.

Revelation 21:19-20 (NIV) - The foundations of the city walls were decorated with every kind of precious stone. The first foundation was jasper, the second sapphire, the third chalcedony (agate NLT), the fourth emerald, the fifth sardonyx (onyx NLT), the sixth carnelian (sardius NKJV), the seventh chrysolite, the eighth beryl, the ninth topaz, the tenth chrysoprase, the eleventh jacinth, and the twelfth amethyst.

Again God is representing the 12 Tribes of Israel, but also His 12 Apostles, as part of the foundation of His Glorious City that He has prepared for His Bride (Revelation 19:7 - NIV).

A gem, gemstone or jewel is a piece of mineral which, in its cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments. The traditional classification begins with a distinction between precious and semi-precious stones. The precious stones are generally considered to be diamond, ruby, sapphire and emerald, with all other gemstones being semi-precious. This distinction reflects the rarity of the respective precious stones in ancient times, as well as their quality: all are translucent with fine color in their purest forms, except for the colorless diamond, and very hard.

A few gemstones are used directly in the form in which they are found. Most however, are cut and polished. The two main designations are stones cut with facets (small flat polished windows) at regular intervals and exact angles or stones which are cut as smooth, dome shaped stones called cabochons (a gemstone which has been shaped and polished). Stones which are opaque (generally the semi-precious stones) are commonly cut as cabochons. These gems are designed to show the stone's color or surface properties as in opals and star sapphires. Grinding wheels and polishing agents are used to grind, shape and polish the smooth shape of the stones.

God also shapes us by the trials we endure: James 1:2-4 (NLT) - Dear brothers and sisters, when troubles come your way, consider it an opportunity for great joy. 3For you know that when your faith is tested, your endurance has a chance to grow. 4So let it grow, for when your endurance is fully developed, you will be perfect and complete, needing nothing.

A Gem cannot be Polished without Friction,
Nor a Man Perfected without Trials.
Chinese Proverb

Gems which are transparent are normally faceted, which best shows the optical properties of the stone's interior by maximizing reflected light and making the stones sparkle. Faceted stones are cut into one of many commonly used shapes. The facets must be cut at the proper angles, depending on the optical properties of the gem. If the angles are too steep or too shallow, the light will pass through the stone and not be reflected back to illuminate the facets.

The "four Cs" (color, cut, clarity and carats), generally used to grade a diamond, can be useful in understanding the grading of all gemstones. In gemstones that have color, it is the purity and beauty of that color that is the primary determinant of quality. Cut relates to the esthetic shape of the polished stone. Clarity relates to translucence but also to inclusions or unusual optical phenomena within the stone such as color zoning (the uneven distribution of coloring within a gem), and asteria (star effects). Finally, carat is the size of the finished gem.

Here is a brief description of each mineral listed in Revelation.
  • Jasper - is an opaque, impure variety of Silica (SiO2), usually red, yellow, brown or green in color.
  • Sapphire - is a variety of Corundum, an Aluminium Oxide (Al2O3). Trace amounts of other elements give it a blue, yellow, pink, purple, orange or greenish color.
  • Chalcedony (Agate) - is a microcrystalline variety of Silica characterized by its fineness of grain and brightness of color.
  • Emerald - is a variety of the mineral Beryl (Be3Al2(SiO3)6) colored green by trace amounts of Chromium and sometimes Vanadium.
  • Sardonyx (Onyx) - is a banded variety of Chalcedony. The colors of its bands can be almost every color.
  • Sardius (Carnelian) - is a brownish-red mineral variety of Chalcedony colored by impurities of Iron Oxide.
  • Chrysolite (Chrysoberyl) - is an Aluminate of Beryllium with the formula BeAl2O4.
  • Beryl - is a Beryllium Aluminium Cyclosilicate with the chemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6.
  • Topaz - is a silicate mineral of Aluminium and Fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F,OH)2.
  • Chrysoprase - is a variety of Chalcedony that contains small quantities of Nickel. Its color is normally apple-green.
  • Jacinth - is a red transparent variety of Zircon (ZrSiO4).
  • Amethyst - is a violet variety of Quartz (SiO4).
Over the next few blog entries we will examine the significance and character of those gems used to decorate the foundations of God's ultimate Heavenly City.

Isaiah 54:11-12 (NLT) - "O storm-battered city, troubled and desolate! I will rebuild you with precious jewels and make your foundations from lapis lazuli. 12I will make your towers of sparkling rubies, your gates of shining gems, and your walls of precious stones."


  1. A beautiful picture of what God can do with the rough stuff in our environment to draw out our very best!

  2. I love the way you ended your post. What a day that will be! :D

  3. All your posts are so brilliantly and intelligently written. It's a pleasure to read them.

  4. Hi I am really interested in this. I was wondering why diamond does appear on the breastplate but does not appear in the New Jerusalem. Most of the stones in the NJ are silicates and none of them are Carbon based. Carbon is the basis for all life on earth but it seems that in the NJ God's people have transcended Carbon signified by all of the stones mentioned none of which contain carbon. If you want to discuss this more please email me joshuad31 (at) yahoo.com

  5. Joshua,
    You make an interesting point. It could be that God is directing our attention to a higher plane than our current existence. Some have said that the Jasper is meant to be the Diamond. In Revelation 21:11 it states - "It shone with the glory of God, and its brilliance was like that of a very precious jewel, like a jasper, clear as crystal." The thought is that clear Jasper could actually be the Diamond. Also Jasper is impure Silicon Dioxide. Pure Silicon Dioxide would be clear. Silicon is the next higher element above Carbon in the same column of the Periodic Table. This means that Carbon and Silicon have similar bonding characteristics due to the number of electrons in the other shell. Many a Sci-Fi movie has made aliens that are Silicon based instead of Carbon based. Possibly using pure Jasper (Silicon Dioxide) in the foundation is to show us that the New Jerusalem is of a higher order of existence than our current, impure world.

  6. I agree with you. That is a very valid point you bring up. Thank you for sharing this very informative and well explained post with us
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  7. I love that I have found this informative site. Thank you 🙏

    Where would one be able to purchase a set of the gems herein?